Jumbled Paragraph Introduction
Para-jumbles are jumbled paragraphs. A paragraph is given but the sentences are not in the right order. The candidate is expected to rearrange the sentences in a logical order such that they make sense.
There are few rules to be followed:
Identify the mandatory pair in the paragraph or given sentences-
Mandatory pair simply means the set of statements which seem to come one after the other. They can be located by looking for the following cues:
An antecedent is the noun for which the pronoun has been used. The sentence with pronoun will come after the sentence containing the respective ‘noun’. One can look for a male antecedent or a female antecedent, or plural antecedents depending upon the pronoun.
Use of Demonstrative Pronouns
The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns. By looking at the demonstrative pronoun, its preceding sentence can be easily traced.
- Mr. Raman’s personality sets him apart from the rest
- Nothing is too small for his attention
- He has a fanatical devotion to detail
- This is what makes him a different guy.
Explanation: A has to be the opening statement since C has used a pronoun, it has to come after A & D contains ‘this’ which should have a preceding statement. C shall precede B as it is talking about his quality & the explanation is given in B.
Linking Words / Transition words
These are the words that guide a smooth flow of one sentence from the other. They would give a clue about the sentence that will come before/after that particular sentence. Some commonly used transition words are:
rather, meanwhile, next, then, later on, also, again, as well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus, as a rule, generally, for instance, for example, for one thing, above all, aside from, barring, besides, in other words, in short, instead, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, after all, all in all, to sum up.
- This is now orthodoxy to which I subscribe – up to a point.
- It emerged from the mathematics of chance and statistics.
- Therefore the risk is measurable and manageable.
- The fundamental concept: Prices are not predictable, but the mathematical laws of chance can describe their fluctuations.
- This is how what business schools now call modern finance was born.
Explanation: In this the opening sentence cannot be A, B, C, E, hence D is the correct Answer.
Chronological Sequence/ Time sequence Approach
The time indicators given in years – or by using time indicating words help in arranging the sentences by placing them in proper time sequence. Here are a few time sequence indicating words –Before, after, later, when etc
- Then two astronomers—the German, Johannes Kepler, and the Italian, Galileo Galilei—started publicly to support the Copernican theory, despite the fact that the orbits it predicted did not quite match the ones observed.
- His idea was that the sun was stationary at the centre and that the earth and the planets move in circular orbits around the sun.
- A simple model was proposed in 1514 by a Polish priest, Nicholas Copernicus.
- Nearly a century passed before this idea was taken seriously.
Explanation: In the above example the flow of logic is in the form of a time sequence which flows from the oldest time period to a more contemporary time period. Therefore, Sentence C will be the first sentence. Sentence B expands upon the “simple model” proposed, hence, it will be the sentence following C. The next sentence in the order of chronology is D—nearly a century passed, while the last sentence will be A which completes the sequence from older time to contemporary time.
Identifying Definite & Indefinite Articles
Definite Article ‘the’ is used when both the writer and the reader know about the noun or pronoun being referred to. Indefinite articles ‘a & an’ are used when the reader does not know about the specific details of the noun being discussed in the sentence. The sentence containing ‘the’ will come after the sentence containing a/an.
- Panther.com is poised to roll out its internet service
- It will be the first ISP to offer – free service.
- Free connectivity will be offered from next month
- An IT Company has been recently launched.
Explanation: Indefinite Article has been used in ‘D’ & should be followed by the definite article given in ‘B’. Hence B should follow D
Acronyms will follow the full forms
The rule is that if both full form as well as short form is present in different sentences, then the sentence containing full form will come before the sentence containing short form.
- If you are used to having your stimulation come in from outside, your mind never develop its own habits of thinking and reflecting.
- Marx thought that religion was the opiate because it soothed people’s pain and suffering and prevented them from rising in rebellion.
- If Karl Marx was alive today, he would say that television is the opiate of the people.
- Television and similar entertainments are even more of an opiate because of their addictive tendencies.
Explanation: Sentence B has Marx (short form) and sentence C has Karl Marx (full form). So, C will come before B. Now look at the options. In option (A), (B) and (C), B is placed before C—hence, rejected.
Cause-Effect Relationship can be established
The mandatory pair can be identified by logical flow of ideas/cause effect relationship specifically by the words used such as: accordingly, because, therefore, consequently, hence etc.
- This could result in the flooding of low lying coastal areas and cities, such as Egypt, the Netherlands, and Bangladesh
- Many problems could result from global warming.
- One of the biggest problems is rising sea level.
- Some countries might even disappear completely
Explanation: Now “this” in sentence A must be referring to some noun, and that noun is used in sentence C (biggest problem). Thus A will follow C. And D will further follow A.
Identifying an obvious opening sentence or Topic sentence or introductory sentence or Lead sentence. An obvious opener could be one which seems like a relatively independent statement which introduces something. It would normally not start with the following words.
- Carry forward words: Words like “and, so, moreover” which carry forward a line of thought expressed in the earlier statement.
- Contrast words: Words like “but, however, nevertheless” which create a Contradiction with the earlier line of thought.
- Conclusive words: Words like finally, thus, eventually etc. which conclude. If a particular statement looks like a good starting point, then look at the choices to eliminate wrong options.
- But now we have another group: the unwitting enablers.
- Democracy and high levels of inequality of the kind that have come to characterize the United States are simply incompatible.
- Believing these people are working for a better world, they are, actually, at most,chipping away at the margins, making slight course corrections, ensuring the system goes on as it is, uninterrupted.
- Very rich people will always use money to maintain their political and economic power.
Explanation: A starts with BUT so it may not be the opening sentence. In C “Believing these people”, is given these” the question should come in mind- Who these is referring to? Narrowing our concentration on two sentences (A) and (C) it seems correct that these refers to unwitting enablers. So we can say that (A) and ( C) forms a pair.
Sentence (B) looks like the correct opening sentence as it introduces the topic.
Premise followed by an example:
If any sentence is working as an example – it should be placed after the sentence for which it is working as an example, not necessarily just after – because one has to explain the idea, it is hypothesis/ theory. It should not be before the idea that it explains.
Difficulty in locating opening sentence-
In case it becomes difficult to identify the opening sentence for whatever reason (may be the text is difficult to comprehend or the Para-jumble is taken from the middle of the passage); look at the options. If there is a pattern in the choices then one can sequence the statements based on the choices.
- The potential exchanges between the officials of IBBF and the Maharashtra Body-Building Association has all the trappings of a drama we are accustomed to.
- In the case of sports persons, there is room for some sympathy, but the apathy of the administrators, which has even led to sanctions from international bodies, is unpardonable.
- A case in the point is the hefty penalty of US $10,000 slapped on the Indian Body-Building Federation for not fulfilling its commitment for holding the Asian Championships in Mumbai in October.
- It is a matter of deep regret and concern that the sports administrators often cause more harm to the image of the country than sportsmen and sportswomen do through their dismal performances.
Explanation: Here sentence 3 is an example of sentence 4. So it will come after 4. So now only option B and C remain. Now go by ACRONYM Method discussed earlier. (IBBF in 1 and Indian Body-Building Federation in 3) 3 will come before 1. So only option B remains, which is the right option.